Vomiting of blood or hematemesis can be a sign of dangerous conditions. However, do not panic when faced with it. All you need to do is immediately to the nearest hospital to get medical treatment, as well as find out the cause of vomiting of blood.

Vomiting of blood is a symptom of bleeding on the part of the stomach, esophagus, or duodenum. In general, the type of vomiting of blood can vary based on the volume and color of blood released.

Vomiting of Blood Signs of Emergency

There is a form of sprinkling of blood mixed with food when vomiting, vomiting with large amounts of blood bright red, or appear dark blood and shaped like black deposits. Dark blood indicates that the blood has been in the stomach for several hours.

Diseases That Can Cause Vomiting of Blood

When vomiting of blood occurs, the patient must be rushed to the hospital emergency room (ER). At the hospital, patients will undergo various examinations such as physical examination, blood tests and endoscopy.

Examination is needed to confirm whether the blood comes from the stomach, esophagus, or airway, because both will refer to different causes.

Here are some common causes behind blood vomiting:

    Esophageal varices

    This condition is characterized by enlargement of blood vessels in the wall at the bottom of the esophagus which is generally caused by cirrhosis. This condition often occurs in alcoholics and needs to get treatment immediately.

    Inflammation of the stomach wall

    Bleeding occurs when inflammation damages the stomach blood vessels. This condition is characterized by pain or tenderness in the stomach.

    Nosebleed

    Blood swallowed from the respiratory tract during a nosebleed. This condition can also cause blood to stool, so the stool is darker in color.

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

    GERD arises due to the increase of stomach acid into the esophagus. This disease can cause inflammation of the esophagus causing bleeding.

While some other conditions are less common but can also trigger blood vomiting, including:

  • Blood disorders such as leukemia, hemophilia, anemia, thrombocytopenia or reduced platelet count in the blood.
  • Ingest poisons, such as corrosive or arsenic acids.
  • Stomach cancer or esophageal cancer.
  • Intussusception, namely the entry of one part of the intestinal folds to other adjacent parts. This condition is an emergency situation.

In addition, vomiting of blood can also be caused by other conditions, such as consumption of aspirin, disorders of the digestive tract blood vessels, peptic ulcers, pancreatic cancer, inflammation of the pancreas, and consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Vomiting of Blood in Pregnant Women and Children

Pregnant women who experience vomiting of blood can be caused by morning sickness or prolonged nausea and vomiting. Continuous vomiting can cause injury to the lining of the esophagus causing bleeding.

While vomiting blood in infants and children can generally be caused by milk allergies, foreign objects ingested, blood clotting disorders, congenital abnormalities, or vitamin K deficiency.

Immediately take it to the hospital emergency room if vomiting of blood is accompanied by conditions such as decreased consciousness, nausea, fever, pale, slight urination, vision problems, and shortness of breath. If you are vomiting yourself, you should avoid driving yourself to the hospital. Ask relatives to escort you. Immediate examination and treatment is needed to prevent various risks of complications.

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