Unhealthy drinking water can be a source of disease. Not a few residents who died of diarrhea, due to consuming this unhealthy drinking water. This condition is common for residents in developing countries like Indonesia.
The type of drinking water consumed every day can also determine health. You need to know the terms and types of drinking water available, the following risks of health problems that may accompany.
Drinking Water Requirements
Healthy drinking water that is suitable for consumption is water that has physical characteristics, microbial content, and its chemical ingredients in accordance with World Health Organization (WHO) regulations or national drinking water quality standards. In Indonesia, the general requirements for drinking water are based on Minister of Health Decree No.907 / MENKES / SK / VII / 2002, namely:
- It has no taste, odor or color, is not turbid and is not in a high temperature.
- Does not contain bacteria, such as E. coli.
- Does not contain chemicals, such as pesticides and disinfectants, exceeding the permitted limits.
Types of Drinking Water
In general, drinking water in Indonesia is divided by source, method of treatment and supply:
Water from drinking water supply companies
Water that is distributed through pipes or tanks for household purposes is generally used to carry out various daily activities. For example, bathing, washing and cooking. When used for drinking, generally boiled water before consumption.
Ground water is usually obtained through wells or pumps. The quality of ground water is determined by the surrounding environment. So good groundwater must be considered the distance from latrines, agriculture that uses pesticides and fertilizers, and fuel tanks. In addition, considering that ground water is absorbed from rainwater, it may be contaminated with bacteria or other substances that can cause disease.
This type of drinking water is usually provided in closed glass or plastic bottles, or in special cardboard boxes. Manufacturers are advised to list the ingredients contained therein. Consumers are advised to always read the label on the package to make sure it meets health standards. In addition, the process of storing and selling up to the hands of consumers is also influential. Because, there are traders who let drinking water in glass or plastic bottles exposed to sunlight for a long time. This can make the number of bacteria in it exceeds the threshold.
Water from companies that supply drinking water and ground water is generally boiled first. Both types of drinking water above are generally consumed by boiling it first. But boiling PAM water and ground water does not make this water condition necessarily safe for consumption. This depends on the type of material that pollutes. Boiling water can indeed kill bacteria in it, but boiling water contaminated with materials such as lead, pesticides, or nitrates will actually increase the levels of these substances.
If you want to consume bottled water, you should look for one that is sold in a clean store that is not exposed to direct sunlight. Make sure the packaging is still intact, the bottle is still good and the clarity of the water color is maintained. Make sure the product to be consumed has been registered with the Food and Drug Supervisory Agency (Badan POM).
Risk of Health Disorders
The effect of consuming contaminated water on human health depends on the type of contaminating material, for example:
- Nitrates from fertilizers that pollute drinking water can be life-threatening, especially for babies when consuming them. In the intestine, nitrate is converted into substances that can inhibit oxygen circulation in the blood.
- Lead water contaminated. Usually from mining or industrial areas, can cause mental and physical development disorders. While adults who consume lead polluted water in the long run are at risk of developing high blood pressure and kidney disorders.
- Pathogens called cryptosporidium from animal or human feces that pollute drinking water can cause life-threatening digestive disorders.
- Industrial waste that is not disposed of according to procedures can contain hazardous mineral substances, such as mercury, which then contaminates ground water.
Some people are more at risk of experiencing health problems when consuming polluted drinking water continuously. For example people who suffer from HIV / AIDS, people who are undergoing chemotherapy, infants and children, pregnant women, and people who undergo organ transplants.
Healthy drinking water must be a concern because consuming it regularly can be the key to getting a healthy body.