When injuries or injuries occur, blood vessels can be damaged and bleeding occurs. To stop the bleeding, our body activates a series of blood clotting and wound healing processes.
The body’s mechanism for stopping bleeding is called hemostasis. There are several important phases in this mechanism, including the phase of formation of blockages by platelets (blood clots) and blood clotting phase. The process of blood clotting or coagulation is a complex process, in which blood forms clots (blood clots) to close and heal wounds, and stop bleeding.
The Elements of the Blood Clotting Process
The process of blood clotting would not occur without the ‘actor’ playing a role. Coagulation involves platelets and a component of coagulation factors.
Coagulation factor (clotting factor)
Platelets or pieces of blood are disc-shaped elements in the blood. Platelets are classified as blood cells, but actually platelets are part of bone marrow cells called megakaryocytes. Platelets play a role to help form blood clots, in order to slow or stop bleeding, and wound healing.
The coagulation factor is protein, mostly produced by the liver. There are 13 coagulation factors in the blood and tissues of the human body.
In addition to the two substances above, an element that also plays an important role in blood clotting is vitamin K. This vitamin is a nutrient that plays an important role in helping the body produce blood clotting factors. People who lack vitamin K are prone to bleeding. This condition is often found in newborns, so they often need vitamin K injections.
How does the process of blood clotting occur?
The process of normal blood clotting goes through a series of complex interactions. Next is the process of blood clotting from beginning to end.
Platelets form blockages
Blood clot formation
Termination of the process of blood clotting
The body slowly removes the blockage
Platelets react when blood vessels are damaged or injured. They attach themselves to the walls of the injured area and together form a blockage. The blockage is formed to cover the damaged part, to stop the blood coming out. Platelets also release chemicals to attract more platelets and other cells to continue the next stage.
Clotting factors give signals to each other, to carry out a fast chain reaction. This reaction is known as the coagulation cascade. In the final stage of this cascade, a coagulation factor called thrombin converts fibrinogen into fibrin strands. Fibrin works by sticking to platelets to create a net that traps more platelets and cells. Clots (clots) also become stronger and more durable.
After a blood clot is formed and the bleeding is controlled. Other proteins will stop the clotting factor, so that the clot does not continue further than needed.
When damaged skin tissue heals, automatic blockages are no longer needed. Strands of fibrin are destroyed, and blood retrieves platelets and cells from blood clots.
Blood Clotting Process Disorders
If the process of blood clotting is abnormal, there can be excessive bleeding or vice versa too much blood clotting can interfere with blood circulation. This condition is called thick blood.
Not everyone experiences a normal process of blood clotting. Some people can experience abnormalities in the process of blood clotting, such as hemophilia, where there is a lack of coagulation factors VIII or IX. In this disease, bleeding that occurs is difficult to stop.
Blood clots can also form even if they are not needed. This condition can cause severe medical conditions such as heart attack, pulmonary embolism, and stroke. Therefore, to prevent abnormal blood clots, it is recommended to be diligent in moving and exercising, not smoking, and adopting a healthy lifestyle.
If there are complaints such as bruising easily, bleeding is difficult to stop when there is a wound, frequent nosebleeds, or there is bruising in the joints, chances are you have problems with blood clots. If there are complaints, it is advisable to consult a doctor.