Planning a prosperous family by adjusting the distance of pregnancy can be started by choosing and using the right contraception.

Contraception is a method or tool used to prevent pregnancy. There are various types of contraception, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Studying all kinds allows you to determine which is most appropriate for you.

Choosing a contraceptive

Natural way

Family planning is naturally done by avoiding sexual relations when a woman is in the most fertile period. Detecting fertility can be done in various ways such as calendar calculations, checking body temperature, and changes in vaginal fluid.

Strengths: no need for funds, tools or drugs.

Deficiency:

  • Limit sexual relations that are done spontaneously.
  • Miscalculation can result in a quarter of people applying this method of pregnancy.

Family planning pills

Birth control pills are the most commonly used contraception and contain the hormones progestin and estrogen to prevent ovulation. These pills are known in two main types, from those containing progesterone only and combination pills.

Advantages:

  • Very effective. The failure rate is only 8%.
  • Smooth menstruation and reduce cramps during menstruation, can also stop menstruation, depending on the type.

Deficiency:

  • Does not protect users from sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Can bring risks such as increased blood pressure, blood clots, blood spots, and hardened breasts.
  • Some women are advised not to take birth control pills, for example: those who have a history of blocked arteries, heart disease, liver disorders, breast or uterine cancer, migraines, to high blood pressure.

Male condom

Male condoms prevent pregnancy by blocking the entry of sperm into a woman’s body.

Advantages:

  • Not expensive.
  • Protect users from most sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Easy to get.

Deficiency:

  • The failure rate reaches 15%, especially if condoms are not used properly.
  • Disposable.

KB injection

There are two types of birth control. KB injections that work for three months to prevent pregnancy, and family planning injections that work for 1 month.

Strengths: More effective and practical than birth control pills, with a failure rate of 3%. If used correctly, the failure rate for 1-month KB injections is lower at less than 1%.

Deficiency:

  • Relatively expensive.
  • Monthly family planning injections require regular monthly visits to the doctor or midwife.
  • Does not provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Can cause side effects such as blood spots.
  • Some women are not recommended to use this contraceptive in several conditions, for example: have a history of migraine, diabetes, cirrhosis of the liver, or stroke and heart attack. In addition, it is also not recommended for women who want to maintain menstruation routinely because family planning injections can cause irregular periods (oligomenorrhea).

Implants

This contraception is a small object about the size and shape like a matchstick inserted into the bottom of the skin, generally on the upper arm. This implant KB slowly secretes the hormone progestin which serves to prevent pregnancy for 3 years.

Advantages:

  • Very effective with a failure rate of less than 1%.
  • Can last up to 3 years.

Deficiency:

  • Relatively expensive.
  • Can cause side effects such as irregular menstruation.
  • Can cause bruising and swelling at the beginning of installation.
  • Does not provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases.

IUD

IUD stands for intrauterine device. An IUD is a T-shaped plastic that is placed in the uterus that is useful for blocking sperm from fertilizing an egg. There are two main types of IUDs:

  • IUDs made of copper, such as ParaGard, can last up to 10 years.
  • IUDs that contain hormones, such as Mirena, need to be replaced every 5 years.

Advantages:

  • Does not require complicated maintenance.
  • Durable.

Deficiency:

  • ParaGard can cause menstruation is not smooth.
  • Can loose.
  • Can cause side effects.
  • Expensive fees in the beginning.

Female condom

Plastic female condom that covers the vagina. There is a plastic ring at the end which acts to adjust the position. This female condom cannot be used in conjunction with a male condom.

Advantages:

  • Provides protection from sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Maintain better body temperature than male condoms.

Deficiency:

  • Less effective than male condoms.
  • Can cause annoying sounds.
  • Disposable.
  • Failure rate of 21%.

Spermicide

Spermicide is a product that is applied in the vagina before intercourse. This jelly, cream, membrane, or foam product contains chemicals that can kill sperm.

Pros: inexpensive and easy to use.

Deficiency:

  • Some types need to be applied 30 minutes before intercourse.
  • If used too often, can cause irritation and increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections.
  • Generally need to be used together with other contraceptives.
  • The failure rate is around 29%.

Diaphragm

The diaphragm is made of dome-shaped rubber that is placed in the cervix before intercourse. Usually used together with spermicide.

Pros: not expensive.

Deficiency:

  • Does not provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases.
  • A failure rate of 16%, especially if not properly worn.
  • Installation must be done by a doctor.
  • Must be removed during menstruation.

Cervical Cap

Shaped like a diaphragm, but with a smaller size. The device used together with spermicide is placed to close the entrance to the uterus.

Pros: inexpensive and can be used for up to 2 days.

Deficiency:

  • The failure rate is 30% for women who already have children, and 15% for those who don’t have children.
  • Installation must be done by a doctor.
  • Must be removed during menstruation.
  • Does not provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases.

Koyo Ortho Evra

This patch is applied to the skin and replaced once a week for three weeks. Patches must be removed by the fourth week. Koyo works by releasing hormones that are as effective as those contained in birth control pills.

Advantages:

  • No need to bother remembering to take pills.
  • Smooth menstruation and minimize cramps during menstruation.

Deficiency:

  • Relatively expensive.
  • Does not provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Can cause side effects that are similar to the side effects of birth control pills.

Vaginal ring

The vaginal ring or NuvaRing is a plastic ring used in the vagina. This plastic ring functions to release the same hormones as birth control pills.

Advantages:

  • Only needs to be replaced once a month.
  • Conduct menstruation.

Deficiency:

  • Relatively expensive.
  • Can cause irritation and side effects.
  • Does not provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases.

Withdrawal

Pregnancy can be prevented naturally by pulling the penis out before ejaculation occurs.

Advantages:

  • Does not require costs, tools, or hormones.
  • Failure rate of 4%.

Deficiency:

  • Sometimes it can’t be done properly.
  • Does not provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases.

The contraceptives above are all temporary. In addition to the above method, there is a permanent method of contraception called vasectomy. In this way, the vas deferens channel that carries sperm from the testes will be closed so that sperm cannot be released. Although it requires surgery, but this method is almost 100% effective.

In general, after examining the various choices of contraception, choosing the appropriate and disciplined and adhering to the instructions for use can increase the effectiveness of the protection of this tool in preventing pregnancy.

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