Thanks to energy, we can undergo all daily activities. But have you ever thought about how the body produces energy? Energy in the body is produced by a biochemical process called catabolism.
Broadly speaking, the biochemical processes that occur in our body are called metabolism. The metabolic reaction itself is divided into two, namely catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the process of breaking down large and complex molecules into simpler forms, mostly converted into energy. This simple form will then become a fuel for the reaction of anabolism, in which small molecules are built into larger molecules.
Catabolism Reactions in the Body
Confused by how catabolism works? The following explanation. Food that has been consumed and entered the digestive organs will be broken down by enzymes in our digestive system. Through catabolism reactions, proteins are broken down into amino acids. This amino acid can be used as a source of energy when the body needs it. Amino acids can also be recycled to make proteins or be oxidized to urea.
In addition to breaking down proteins, catabolism can also break down glycogen into glucose. These simple carbohydrates will then go through an oxidation process called glycolysis. From this reaction energy is produced.
While fat will go through a process of breakdown called hydrolysis. This process produces fatty acids and glycerol, which will then go through the glycolysis reaction and other biochemical reactions to form energy.
The energy generated from the above processes is stored as adenosine triphospate (ATP) molecules. Many aspects of cell metabolism, both anabolism and catabolism, are closely related to the production and consumption of ATP as an energy source, which also acts as a fuel in the entire metabolic process.
Sports like running, swimming, and biking are types of activities that are catholic or cardio exercises. When doing this activity, heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing will increase. Catabolic exercises can help you maintain a healthy heart and lungs. But before doing cardio exercise, you should consult with your doctor first if you have certain health conditions.
The hormones involved in the catabolism reaction
In the process of catabolism, the body needs the help of hormones and certain substances. A number of hormones that play a role in catabolism include:
- Cortisol. This hormone helps regulate protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism. This hormone, known as the ‘stress’ hormone, is produced by the adrenal glands.
Cytokines. This is a substance that regulates cell-cell interactions and plays a role in regulating the immune system. Some types of cytokines function to stimulate the immune system, while other types of cytokines function in suppressing the activity of the immune system.
Glucagon. This hormone is produced by the pancreas, and together with insulin functions to maintain blood sugar levels.
Adrenalin. This hormone, known as epinephrine, can increase heart rate, strengthen heart contractions, and increase blood flow to muscles.
The process of catabolism that can produce energy is very important for the body. With energy, the heart can beat so that all body tissues get blood supply. The function of the lungs, kidneys, digestion, and cell metabolism can also work optimally, to maintain the survival and health of the body.