Indonesia is the second country in the world with the highest number of dengue cases. Not surprisingly, the presence of dengue fever vaccine (DHF) is needed to prevent and control the number of cases that occur.
After being introduced several years ago, the DHF vaccine has finally been able to be used by the people of Indonesia. Since September 2016, BPOM has formalized the use of DHF vaccine for the prevention and control of dengue fever.
Dengue Fever Endemic
DHF is caused by the bite of an infected mosquito by one of four types of dengue virus. This disease is characterized by a high fever that appears three days to two weeks after a bite. About 75 percent of the world’s population most at risk for this disease live in countries of Southeast Asia and Asia Pacific.
In 2013, the DHF morbidity rate (IR) in Indonesia reached 41.25 per 100,000 population. In more severe conditions, DHF requires intensive care in a hospital and can even cause death. In 2013, the DHF Case Mortality Rate (CFR) in Indonesia was 0.7 percent of the total sufferers.
Development of DHF Vaccine
Dengue vaccine has begun to be developed since the 1940s and has only experienced rapid development in the last decade.
Generally a vaccine can only be officially used after years of testing through four stages: one preclinical stage and three stages of clinical trials to prove their effectiveness and safety. The new vaccine was declared to have passed the test and given certification after it was proven to be quite effective in preventing DHF and did not pose a risk that endangered patients.
One of the most common types of dengue vaccine is in the form of a weakened dengue virus. This vaccine contains a weakened virus which is useful to awaken the human immunity without causing disease.
Keep in mind, DHF can be caused by four different types of viruses (DEN1, DEN 2, DEN 3, and DEN 4), so you need a vaccine that can effectively prevent infections of all four types, or called tetravalent vaccine. DHF vaccine that is now circulating in Indonesia has entered the third clinical trial stage and is known to provide immunity against these four types of viruses.
Based on recent research, this dengue vaccine can reduce the risk of hospital treatment and reduce the risk of suffering from severe dengue fever significantly, especially in children over the age of 9 years. For safety level, this dengue vaccine is proven to have good safety and no severe side effects were found for vaccine users.
Although the dengue vaccine is now available, it does not mean that the DHF vaccine is the only way to prevent someone from contracting dengue fever. It is better to continue to take steps to prevent DHF, such as avoiding mosquito bites and maintaining environmental cleanliness.